Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France in December 2015.
These intended contributions were determined without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions. The term was intended as a compromise between “quantified emissions limitation and reduction objective” (QUELROs) and “nationally appropriate mitigation actions” (NAMAs) that the Kyoto Protocol used to describe the different legal obligations of developed and developing countries.
Under the Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015 :-
- The INDC will become the first Nationally Determined Contribution when a country ratifies the agreement, unless they decide to submit a new NDC at the same time.
- Once the Paris Agreement is ratified, the NDC will become the first greenhouse gas targets under the UNFCCC that applied equally to both developed and developing countries.
On 3 August 2016 China and US ratified 2015 agreement on INDC. Together they both constitute 38% of total global emission, with China’s alone emitting total of 20%. India that has a Global share of GHGs emission at 4.1% of that of world ratified Paris climate agreement on October 2, 2016 by depositing the Instrument of ratification with the United nations.
The INDCs combine the top-down system of a United Nations climate agreement with bottom-up system-in elements through which countries put forward their agreements in the context of their own national circumstances, capabilities and priorities, within the ambition to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions enough to keep global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius.
The INDCs contain steps taken towards emission reductions and also aim to address steps taken to adapt to climate change impacts, and what support the country needs, or will provide, to address climate change. After the initial submission of INDCs in March 2015, an assessment phase followed to review the impact of the submitted INDCs before the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference.